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SECTION A (INSTRUCTIONS; Answer any Two questions from this section

(i)Transparency; in government refers to the principle of sharing information openly with the public and other relevant agencies. Increasing inter-agency transparency is a great strategy for improving government performance.

(ii)Accountability; is all about taking responsibility for your actions. In other words it help improve government performance in the long-term. Accountability tends to create a sense of competence and ownership, which can go a long way to boost employee morale and commitment.

(iii)Capacity building; refers to the processes institutions apply to develop and strengthen their knowledge and skills to perform their jobs competently and thrive in various disciplines. To improve government performance, one needs to create sustainable institutions by increasing capacity building.

(iv)Incentives; opportunities and reward systems for government workers as well as contractors can help boost performance incredibly. If you give employees various incentives for good performance, they are more likely to work their socks off as they strive to maintain the high levels of productivity and service delivery.

(v)Technology; We are living in an era where technology has a big say on performance. Various technological tools and applications have made it easier for government workers to execute previously complex tasks quickly and efficiently.

(vi)Political goodwill; is vital as most governmental agencies, particularly in developing countries, often work at the behest of the executive. The political leadership needs to collaborate with all stakeholders in the various agencies to overcome inherent obstacles and guarantee a suitable work environment for all.

(i)Legislative or Law-Making: The first and foremost function of a legislature is to legislate i.e. to make laws. In ancient times, laws used to be either derived from customs, traditions and religious scriptures, or were issued by the kings as their commands. However, in the contemporary era of democracy, legislature is the chief source of law.

(ii)Deliberative : To deliberate upon matters of national importance, public issues, problems and needs is an important function of a modern legislature. Through this function, the legislature reflects the public opinion over various issues.

(iii)Custodian of National Finances: A near universal rule is that “the legislature of the state is the custodian of the national purse.” It holds the purse of the nation and controls the finances. No money can be raised or spent by the executive without the approval of the legislature. Each year the executive has to prepare and get passed from the legislature the budget for the coming financial year.

(iv)Control over the Executive: A modern legislature has the power to exercise control over the executive. In a parliamentary system of government, for all its actions, decisions, and policies, the executive is collectively responsible before the legislature.

(v)Constituent; In almost every state in many countries, it is the legislature which has the power to amend the constitution. For this purpose, the legislature has to pass special laws, called amendments, in accordance with the procedure laid down in the Constitution.

-Existence of the Constitution: In every democratic nation, there is usually the existence of a constitution which is either written or written. A constitution can simply be defined as the fundamental laws or rules which guides a state or society. It establishes the institutions of the government such as the legislature, the executive and the judiciary and define their Periodic election.

– Separation of power: Separation of power is a political concept by Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, an 18th century French social and political philosopher. It means that the political powers of a state should not be concentrated in one single hand. It should rather be separated and sheared to avoid dictatorship.

– Existence of political parties: A political party is a union of like minded people who come together to take over power power. In a democratic state, there should be political parties. Not just one political party but two or more.

– Equality before the law: In a true democratic state, there is equity before the law. This form of government does no encourage the idea that some class of citizens should or should not be punished for their actions. Even the legitimate leaders in a democratic state are forced to face the law during or after their service of the nation.

– Fundamental human rights: Fundamental human rights are also very important features of a democratic state. They are those inalienable and immutable right that is given to a member of a state as soon as he/she is born.

– Press freedom: Freedom of the press or press freedom is also a key feature of every democratic nation because the press play important roles in a democracy.

– Rule by the Majority: Democracy is a concept of governance where every decision is made in favour of the majority interest. The will of the majority always prevails. Elections are won a by majority votes, opinion polls are given weight by majority views, referendum is conducted by majority votes, bills in the legislative houses are decided based only specified majority votes, courts and tribunals adopt the majority decision as their final decision, and so on.
SECTION B (INSTRUCTIONS; Answer Any Two Question from this section

– Presence of regionalised parties:
One of the reasons the military advanced for their intervention in the politics of Nigeria in 1966 was that the various political parties that were operating at the time were not national in nature. The entire support base of the various political parties was regionalised.

– Mismanagement of the economy:
Another accusation that was leveled against the civilian government to warrant their overthrow was that they mismanaged the economy. The economy was said to have been so mismanaged that if the military had not stepped in, the economy would have slid into an abyss.

– Unhealthy rivalry among the major tribes:
The politicians of the day were accused by the military of engaging in tribal politics. The political practice of the time was based on ethnicity so that each of the major political parties was jostling for supremacy. This, according to the military, badly damaged national unity.

– Politicization of the army:
Another cause of the military intervention in Nigeria was the politicization of the army. The army was so politicized that one’s promotion was no longer based on one’s experience, qualification and training but rather on one’s political leanings which was in turn underpinned on one’s tribal origin.

– Tribalism and nepotism:
Another key contribution to the military overthrow of the civilian government of the day was tribalism and nepotism. Recruitment, appointment and promotion within the Nigerian Civil Service was based on “whom you know”. One was not too sure of appointment into the Civil Service if one did not know any “Oga” within the service or did not belong to a certain tribe. This, the military said was bad.

(i) The constitution is written in a single document
(ii) It is a federal constitution
(iii) It has a bicameral legislature at the federal level
(iv) It identifies the state and the people for which the constitution was made (Nigerians and Nigeria)
(v) It has a rigid procedure for amendments
(vi) It provides for 36 states and 744 Local Governments in Nigeria and the procedure for creating new ones

(i) The Constitution promotes the oneness and unity of the country
(ii) Its provisions help in the economic and political development of the country
(iii) It marks the beginning of the fourth republic
(iv) It stipulates the requirements for identifying or acquiring Nigerian citizenship.
(v) It provides for good relations between Nigeria and the international communities
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