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*2023 WAEC GCE CIVIC EDUCATION ANSWERS*
*QUESTION NO 1*
(i) Enforcing Laws: Government agencies enforce traffic laws by monitoring roadways and issuing citations to violators.
(ii) Setting Regulations: These agencies establish and update traffic regulations to promote safety and efficiency on the roads.
(iii) Conducting Inspections: Government agencies inspect vehicles to ensure they meet safety standards and are roadworthy.
(iv) Educating the Public: They provide educational programs and campaigns to raise awareness about traffic rules and safe driving practices.
(v) Maintaining Infrastructure: Government agencies are responsible for maintaining road infrastructure, such as signs, signals, and road markings, to ensure their effectiveness in promoting traffic safety.
(i) Discrimination and Prejudice:
Discrimination based on factors such as race, ethnicity, gender, religion, or social class can hinder individuals and groups from fully exercising their rights. Prejudice and bias may lead to unequal treatment, exclusion, and denial of opportunities, limiting access to education, employment, and other essential services.
(ii) Political Repression:
Governments or political entities may engage in repressive measures that curtail individual and group rights. This can include restrictions on freedom of speech, assembly, and association. Political repression may lead to the suppression of dissenting voices and limit the ability of individuals and groups to express their opinions or advocate for their rights.
(iii) Economic Inequality:
Economic disparities and unequal distribution of resources can hinder individuals and marginalized groups from enjoying their rights. Limited access to education, healthcare, and economic opportunities often perpetuates a cycle of poverty, preventing individuals from fully participating in societal activities and exercising their rights.
(iv) Lack of Access to Education:
Denial of education or limited access to quality education can be a significant hindrance to the realization of individual and group rights. Education is crucial for personal development, empowerment, and the ability to engage actively in society. Barriers to education, such as discrimination or inadequate resources, can limit opportunities for individuals and groups.
(v) Arbitrary Governance and Corruption:
Corrupt practices and arbitrary governance can undermine the rule of law and erode individuals’ and groups’ trust in institutions. Corruption may lead to the misallocation of resources, denial of services, and unequal application of the law. This can hinder the effective exercise of rights and contribute to a sense of injustice within society.
*QUESTION NO 3*
Tolerance refers to the open-mindedness and acceptance of diverse ideas, cultures, beliefs, and identities.
(i) Education about diversity: Learning in schools and communities to understand and appreciate differences in cultures, beliefs, and backgrounds, teaching the importance of respecting each other’s uniqueness.
(ii) Talking and sharing between different groups: Encouraging conversations and exchanges between various ethnicities to understand each other better, share experiences, and build empathy.
(iii) Celebrating cultures together: Participating in events and festivals that showcase the traditions, customs, and values of different ethnic groups, fostering mutual appreciation and understanding.
(iv) Fair laws for everyone: Implementing laws and policies that ensure equal rights, opportunities, and fair treatment for individuals from all ethnic backgrounds.
(v) Showing positive stories in media: Portraying diverse ethnicities positively in the media, sharing stories that highlight unity, collaboration, and contributions from different cultural groups.
(vi) Working together on community projects: Collaborating on projects like community development initiatives or social activities that involve members from various ethnic groups, promoting teamwork and shared goals.
*QUESTION NO 5*
(i)Violence and intimidation: Cultism in Nigeria often involves gangs engaged in violent activities such as killings, rape, robberies, and kidnappings. These acts instill fear in communities and promote a sense of insecurity, as individuals are afraid of falling victim to such violence.
(ii)Social disruption: Cult groups disrupt social harmony by creating divisions and instigating conflicts between different communities, religious groups, or ethnicities. This social unrest adds to the overall sense of insecurity and hampers peaceful coexistence.
(iii)Recruitment of young people: Cultism preys on vulnerable young individuals, particularly students in schools and universities. The recruitment of young people into cult groups not only puts their lives at risk but also fuels the cycle of violence, as these individuals are often forced to engage in criminal activities, further contributing to insecurity.
(iv)Influence on politics and governance: Cultism has infiltrated politics and governance in Nigeria, with cult members seeking positions of power and using their influence to perpetuate violence. This interference undermines the foundations of democracy, erodes public trust in governance, and fosters an environment of insecurity and instability.
(v) Economic ramifications: Cultism has a negative impact on Nigeria’s economy. The prevalence of violence and crime associated with cultism disrupts businesses, discourages investments, and hinders socio-economic development. This stunts growth opportunities and exacerbates insecurity, as individuals struggle to make a living and find economic stability.
*WAEC CIVIC EDUCATION*
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i)Community Mobilization: Civil society organizations (CSOs) engage communities directly, organizing them around specific issues, empowering individuals to participate actively in decision-making processes and taking collective actions towards change.
(ii)Legal Advocacy: Through legal advocacy, CSOs use the legal system to challenge injustices, advocate for policy changes, or defend the rights of marginalized groups, often through litigation, legal advice, or support.
(iii)Social Media and Communication: Civil society organizations (CSOs) leverage social media platforms, traditional media, and communication channels to disseminate information, raise awareness, mobilize support, and influence public opinion on critical social issues.
(iv)Capacity Building and Training: By offering skill-building workshops, training sessions, and educational programs, CSOs empower individuals and communities with the knowledge and tools needed to address societal challenges and advocate for change effectively.
(v)Policy Research and Analysis: Civil society organizations (CSOs) conduct in-depth research, policy analysis, and data collection to produce evidence-based reports and recommendations. These findings are used to influence policymakers, advocating for policies that address societal issues.
(vi)Partnerships and Collaboration: Civil society organizations (CSOs) collaborate with other organizations, governments, academia, businesses, and international bodies to combine efforts, share resources, and pool expertise, enhancing their collective impact and effectiveness in driving positive societal changes.
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